It's a first for Canada, and perhaps the world.
The Quebec government and Cree people are forming a new joint local administration in the north of the province.
It will give native peoples more say in how natural resources are used.
The agreement was signed Tuesday in the National Assembly.
Cree Grand Chief Matthew Coon Come said the decision was motivated by the Plan Nord, Premier Jean Charest's ambitious plan to tap mining resources in the north.
While Cree people will have no say in mining development, the new authority will have input on hunting and fishing in certain areas.
The Cree will have a hand in some hydro and wind power projects.
The Eeyou Istchee James Bay territory will replace the current municipality of James Bay.
It will be jointly run by Cree people and non-natives living in the region.